Chuvash.Org :: Printable Version :: UNIT ELEVEN (CV Manual, Grammar)

    a. Present participle (nomen actoris) in -kan
    b. Past participle (nomen perfecti) in -nă
    c. Future participle (nomen futuri) in -as
    d. Infinitive (nomen concretum) in -ma
    e. Nomen necessitatis in —malla
    Present Participle (Nomen actoris)
     As briefly observed previously, Chuvash does not have relative clauses of the sort “The man, who is reading the book, said so.“ Instead, this function is handled by a number of verbal nouns corresponding to the participles of other languages. The first of these is the present participle, or nomen actoris, which is made from a verbal stem plus the morpheme {(A)kAn}. Since it is a noun, it may occur in various cases and in the possessive and plural. It denotes the person doing customarily or presently the action of the verb. Thus, it frequently refers to occupations or professions, as well as temporary practices. It may be subject, modifier or object.
	vulakan 		reader, one who reads, the reading one
	ĕntĕ kileken etem 	‘the now coming man‘ the man who is coming now
	shyva kürteken Ioann 	‘causing to go into water John‘ = John the Baptist
	tyra akakan 		a grain-sower, the one sowing grain
	şynna pulăshăkan şyn	a philanthropist (a man-helping man‘)
	esir julakan jură 	‘the you singing song‘ = the song which you are singing
	chej ĕşeken chashăk 	the tea-drinking cup (obviously, not the cup which is drinking tea, 
				but the cup for the purpose of tea-drinking)

	vulakan charănchĕ	the reader stopped

	pĕr vătăr hălăş 	an oak thirty fathoms in circumference (lit. ‘revolving around‘)
	şavrănakan juman

    The nomen actoris may have an object of its own, and it in turn may be the modifier of another word, or the object of another word, as
	hulana kajakan şul	the road leading to the city

    It may occur with possessive endings, as in these examples:
	şyrakanni şyrat,	the writer writes,
	vulakanni vulat		the reader reads (lit. ‘its writing-one writes‘)

	puşlakanni esĕ pultăn,	“Its beginning one you were; its finishing one, I“
	vĕşlekenni – epĕ	You started it but 1 finished it.

    This form may occur in all cases, and its formation is absolutely regular
	vulakan			ĕşleken			vulakansem
	vulakanăn		ĕşlekenĕn		vulakansenĕn
	vulakana		ĕşlekene		vulakansene
	vulakanta		ĕşlekente		vulakansenche
	vulakantan		ĕşlekenten		vulakansenchĕn
	vulakanpa		ĕşlekenpe		vulakansempe

    The morpheme -chchĕ may also be affixed:
	esĕ haşata stat‘ja şyrakanchchĕ		you used to write newspaper articles 
(‘you were one who was writing articles‘)
    The negative is made with the morpheme {. mAn}:
	vulaman			not reading, one who does not read, a non-reader
	kuş kurman şyn		‘a non-eye-seeing man‘ >  a blind man
	shyvra putman japalasem	things which do not sink in water, unsinkables
	ereh ĕşmen şyn		a non-wine-drinking man, teetotaler
	pĕlmenten an yjt	don‘t ask a man who doesn‘t know (note ablative)

    There is in addition an older form of this noun without the k, and ending in -an/-en. It is met today in a few fixed phrases, as:
	juhanshyv		flowing water‘ = river
	vĕşen kajăk		‘flying bird‘ = fowl, bird
	şüren şul		‘going, travelling road‘ = well-trodden path

    Fast Participle (Nomen perfecti)
     This form is of extremely wide application. It is chiefly a narrative and abstract participle, and functions in general like the preceding form, in that lt occurs as a modifier and as a predicate. From its latter usage as a predicate, many grammarians, both Chuvash and Western, treat it like a tense. Although it is superficially like a tense, it differs from them in not having any personal endings. Yet, it differs from the nouns, and the foregoing nomen actoris in that it does not occur in different persons (except as a special formation with the 3rd p. sg. suffix). Like other nouns, it may take the past morpheme -chchĕ‚ thus making it a sort of past form of itself. it is a non-eyewitness form, and when used predicatively in its tense-like function, it is chiefly found in narrative style, especially of folktales. The ending is -nă/-nĕ, and does not vary for person. Before this morpheme, monosyllabic verb stems in -r employ their stem alternant without -r.
	epĕ vulană		I was a reader, I am one who read; I read (past)
	epĕ pĕlnĕ		I was a knower, I am one who knew, I knew
	şyn kurnă		the man saw
	kurnă şyn		the seen man‚ the man who was seen AND the man who saw
	esĕ kurnă etem		your seen man‘ the man whom you saw
	kilnĕ etem		the man who came
	varmanti pysăk tipnĕ juman	a big oak which has dried out in the forest
	pytannă sĕrten tuprăn	you have found their hidden place
	arămĕ jană tytnă	his wife went and held him ( began to hold him)

	manăn hĕrĕ tălăha	from having left my daughters as widows,  
	hăvarnăshăn		because you left them as widows

    Note that both active and passive may be inferred from this form, depending on the context:
	kurnă şyn		the man who saw, the man who was seen
	kurman iltmen şyn	a man who was neither seen nor heard; 
a man who did not see or hear
    The negative to this morpheme is in -mAn, which thus coincides formally with that of the preceding nomen actoris. Both positive and negative forms may occur in different cases and in possessive forms, of the 3rdp. only.
	pĕlmen sămah			an unknown word, a word one didn"t know
	şemjiseni pĕri te sismen	not one of the family-members noticed
	lashasem shyv ĕşmenten		owing to the horses‘ not drinking water
	kahal kajnăne kursassăn 	when they saw Lazybones coming

	kahal vshsem kulnăshĕ		Lazybones grew angry from their having laughed
	şilennĕ julnăshke		the one who has remained

	In the possessive of the 3rd p. sg.‚ with the suffix -i, this form is used as a verbal noun in -ni, which may then occur in different cases.

	kĕneke vulani usăllă		book reading is useful (‘book its reading useful‘)
	tabak turtnine sijenlĕ teşşĕ	tobacco smoking is harmful, they say
	vulani				reading, the act or occupation of reading
	tărăshni			the trying, striving, endeavor, attempt

	epir tavlashnine şăltăr		the stars, moon and sun saw us fighting
	ujăh hĕvel kurchĕ	 	

	anchah acha lashi kalanine 	however, the boy did not obey the horse‘s talking
	itlemen				(what the horse had said)

	hu savnine par			give the one you love, your loved one

	hăjne chup tunine kăşt sisnĕ	she felt somewhat herself having been kissed

    Future Participle (Nomen futuri)
     The formation of this noun is not difficult: to the stern of the word -(A)s is added, thus:
	vulas			one who will read, that which is to be read, 
				which will be read

	pĕles			what will be known, one who will know
	vyras văhăt		the time to harvest
	pulas văhăt		future tense (‘the going-to-become time‘)
	kiles şul		the coming year
	kalas sămax		the words (I am) going to say
	ĕntĕ kĕrü tăvas pulĕ	now there will be the making into a son-in-law 
				(now we shall make you my son in-law)

     The negative of this form employs the -mAs- allomorph of the negative morpheme, thus, kilmes ‘not going to come,‘ or jurlamas ‘not going to sing.‘ In today‘s language, however, this usage is relatively rare. Instead, the postposed negative word mar is employed, or the word şuk ‘there is none.‘
	epĕ temterle kajas mar tĕrem	I said (I was) one who will not go at all

     The nomen futuri may also be used predicatively, with or without pronoun.
	epĕ pĕles	I will know, I should know
	kajas, ate	I‘ll go, father lit. ‘there will be a going‘
	ăşta pytanas	Where is one to hide?
	jeple pĕles	How to know? How is one to know that?
	jeple tupas	How to find? = How is one to find her?

     The future participle is also frequently used with the so-called purposive case denoted by the morpheme -/shăn/, meaning “for, for the purpose of.“ This combination functions like the infinitive of European languages in many ways. Note that in pronunciation the combinations -ssh- or şsh become -shsh-.
	appana kurasshăn epĕ	I came here for the seeing of my sister, to see my sister
	kunta kiltĕm

	acha şavah anasshăn pulnă	the boy was for descending there (anyway), 
					the boy wanted to go down there

	ku hĕre kahala		that girl was not for going to the Lazybones,
	kajasshăn pulman	did not want to go to Lazybones

    Infinitive (Nomen concretum) in -ma
     This form, which other writers have called the infinitive (and Ashmarin the supine), is a standard verbal noun formed from any stem with the morpheme {-mA}. It is frequently translated into English with a form (gerund) in -ing. It does not refer to any mood, tense, person or number, but to the action in a nominal sense. There is no negative form.
	jurla				to sing
	jurlama				singing, the act or practice of singing
	văl jurlama havas		he loves singing, he loves to sing
	mana tupma hushat		he orders me to find (them)
	vută tijeme hatĕrlenĕ		he readied the loading of firewood
	văl shyv ăsma annă		he went down to draw water

     This form frequently has a purposive connotation, “for, for to, in order to, for the purpose of doing so.“
	pĕrre amashĕ shyva kajma hushnă 	once his mother ordered going for 
						(the purpose of getting) water

	şav starik lashisene şăvarma annă	that old man went down to water 
						(in order to water) his horses

	ashshĕ vara ilme kĕnĕ			then his father came in to eat

	akă tyră akakan akma tuhnă		Lo, a sower went out to sow [Mark IV,3]
	kartana lasha tytma kajnă		he went into the herd to catch a horse
	pallama pyrsan				when he went in order to recognize

    Although there is no negative, this form may occur with the privative morpheme -săr, viz.:
	nummajchchen kajmasăr tăna 		he stood for a long time without going
	chătajmasăr 				inability to restrain

	arămĕ tepĕr kaş şyvărmasăr 		the next night his wife lay and watched without 
	syhlasa vyrtnă				sleeping

    Nomen necessitatis in -malla
     The so-called obligatory noun, or noun of necessity, is formed from the verbal noun in -ma by the addition of the old directive morpheme -lla, which we previously encountered in forms like vărmanalla ‘towards the woods.‘ It most frequently occurs in the 3rd p. sg. possessive, thus -malli, or -malle. It has no negative formation, except to add mar after it.
    Examples are:
	vulamalla, vulamalli		that which must be read, is to be read
	pĕlmelle, pĕlmelli		that which must be known, is necessary to know
	epĕ kilmelle			I must come, I have to come
	hal"ĕh kajmalli?		is it necessary to go now (= do we have to go now?)

	untan tepĕr kun			the next day it was necessary to recognize the middle  
	vătalăhne pallamalla pulnă	one (the middle one was to be recognized)

	hăşşan … pürtre puran		When will we be having to live in a house? (When do 
	purănmalla pulăr-shi		we get to live in a house like other people?)


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