Chuvash.Org :: Printable Version :: UNIT FOURTEEN (CV Manual, Grammar)

    Adverbs; Postpositions; conjunctions; particle s; interjections.
    We have previously observed that there is little formal difference between nominals in their function as nouns and in their function as adjectives. The same words may also be used in adverbial uses. There are some particular endings which occur on words used adverbially, but examination reveals them to be morphemes already familiar to us, functioning differently. Study the following examples:
	ilemlĕ vărman		a beautiful woods
	ilemlĕ tĕrlenĕ		beautifully sewn

	inşe şul		a distant road
	inşe an hur		don‘ t put it far away

	hurlăhlă jură		a sad song
	hurlăhlă julaşşĕ	they sing sadly

	vyrăsla jură		a Russian song
	vyrăsla jurlat		he sings in Russian

    Some additional examples of adjectives, pronouns, numerals and nouns used as adjectives are the following phrases (taken mostly from Dmitriyev & Gorskii, p. 890).
	lajăh kalaşat			he speaks well
	tirpejlĕ tyt			be careful, take care
	chăvashla kalaşat		he speaks Chuvash
	şĕnĕlle purănat			he‘s living like a new man 
					(turned over a new leaf)

	urăhla tăvăpăr			we do it differently
	unchchĕn kilĕn			until you come
	teprechchen hăvarar		let‘s stay until the next one
	şavănta kaj			go there
	kuntan kajatpăr			we are leaving here (from here)

	vişşĕn purnatpăr		we three live together
	ikserĕn piraşşĕ			they go two at a time
	şurkunne kajăksem vĕşse kilchĕş	the birds came flying in the springtime

	kunĕpe şumăr şăvat		it rains all day

    The morphemes -lla of the directive, and the -la morphemeof adjectives may also be found in an adverbial function as: untalla ‘thither,‘ kilelle ‘homewards,‘ şamrăkla ‘as a youth, young,‘ şĕrle ‘by night, at night,‘ kĕtesle ‘in installments.‘ The genitive case is also often used to create adverbs, thus, irĕkkĕn ‘voluntarily, of a voluntary nature,‘ sivvĕn ‘coldly,‘ şămăllăn ‘slightly,‘ tĕplĕn ‘in detail,‘ vyrănăn ‘in places, somewhere,‘ măshărăn ‘in pairs, paired up,‘ kunĕn-şĕrĕn ‘by day and night.‘ The dative is found with some expressions of time, as kĕrkunne ‘in the fall,‘ şurkunne ‘in the spring,‘ irhine ‘in the morning.‘ The suffix -chchen or –chen is found on some expressions of time, as well as in the antecedent converb: halichchen ‘up to this time,‘ pajtahchen ‘since time immemorial,‘ nummajchchen ‘a great deal, for a long time.‘
    We have previously met the prefixes -ta-/-te- with the indefinite pronouns; they occur with some adverbial words: tahşan ‘sometime,‘ taşta ‘somewhere,‘ temĕnle ‘some sort,‘ nişta ‘no where, to nowhere,‘ teple ‘somehow.‘ The compound suffix -ranpa, arising from the instrumental and ablative cases, is also used adverbially: ĕnertenpe ‘since yesterday,‘ paşărtanpa ‘since time began,‘ kilnĕrenpe ‘since I arrived, from my having arrived.‘
    Some words and phrases occur only in adverbial usage:
	paşăr			recently
	sasartăk		suddenly
	aran			somehow
	aval			formerly
	jalan			always
	pĕrmaj			continually
	kăşal			nowadays (< ku ‘this‘ + şul ‘year‘)

    Unlike languages with which the student may be acquainted, Chuvash does not have any prepositions, but instead uses postpositions, which get their name from the fact that they come after the word which they govern instead of before it. These words were once substantives, and for that matter, still are, although usually they occur in the function of postpositions. Some typical words which are used as postpositions are the following:
	ajak	side				hĕr	edge
	um	front, before			pat	direction, towards
	vară	midst				şum	along
	aj	underpart, underside		hushă	between; internal
	şi	surface				hĕrri 	front one side ("its edge‘)
	jen	side				ăsh(ĕ) 	interior, inside
	tără	upon				tărri 	upon (possessive)
	hyş	rear, behind			şyvăh 	vicinity, near

    Case forms suffice to express some relationships, as:
	shkapa kĕneke hur		place the book in the book case

    If it is necessary to tell in greater detail, then postpositions may be used:
	kĕneke ajne tetrad‘ hur		put the notebook under the book
	kĕneke şine tetrad‘ hur		put the notebook on the book
	kĕneke hyshne tetrad‘ hur	put the notebook behind the book

    Some examples from the reading are the following.
	juman patne		towards the oak
	şuni şinchchen		down from his sled
	tĕp şine		on the ground
	kashnin şinchen		from off each
	lashu patne		towards your horse
	pĕrin uri piche şine	at the side of one"s leg
				(on top of the side of the foot of one)

	aslin puşĕ patĕnchen	from the side of the eldest‘s head

    In the modern literary language, the postposition words do not take possessives other than the 3rd p. ‚ and take only the dative, locative and ablative case endings, and govern the genitive of pronouns. With nouns, the absolute case is used. Nearly any word which means some sort of location or direction can be used with the practical effect of a postposition.
    Some postpositions of invariable which can"t be declined, are:
	urlă		through, across
	pĕrle		together with (+ instrumental)
	vitĕr		through, across
	pek		like
	taran		up to
	tărăh		by, according to
	pula		thanks to
	pirki		by virtue of
	valli		for
	kura		thanks to
	hirĕş		against
	puşne		except (+ ablative)

    They may govern different cases, as genitive, dative and ablative.
	san valli kĕneke iltĕm		I bought this book for you
	ku kĕneke Ivana valli		this book is for John
	Verukăn ivălĕnchen puşne	Vera has no one except her son
	urăh nikam ta şuk
	şumăra pula ută tipmerĕ		On account of the rain the hay did not dry out.

    Some persons consider the purposive -shăn and the terminative -chen as postpositions. One could equally well consider them cases.
	mĕnshĕn		for what, why?
	kaşchen		until evening

    Chuvash conjunctions function essentially the same as do their English counterparts, and may be divided into subordinating and coordinating, which, as their names imply, serve either to connect explanatory clauses with main clauses, or simply to unite words and clauses of equal (hence coordinate) status.
     Coordinating conjunctions are the following:
	connective: 	tata, -ta/-te “and, too, also“

	partitive:	je, te, pĕrre ... tepre, pĕr . .. pĕr “now … now;“ 
			je . .. je “either . . or,“ “now this ... now that“

	adversative: 	şapah, anchah “but, however“

	negative:	ni . .. ni “neither ... nor“ (of foreign origin)

    Subordinating conjunctions are the following:
	causative:	mĕnshĕn tensen “because“ (‘If you say for what‘)

	consequential: şavănpa, şavănpa vara, vara “since“

	purposive: 	tese “in order to“ (lit. ‘saying‘)

	conditional: 	tesen “if“ (‘when you say‘)

	concessive: 	pulin te, pulsan ta “although“ (‘if it be‘)

    Some examples are:
	vyrăs ta, chăvash ta, irşe 		Both Russian, Chuvash and
	te hăj chĕlhipe kalaşat	 		Erzyan speak in their own language.
	hula uramĕsem aslă ta takăr		City streets are broad and flat.

	epĕ şeş mar, ytisem te			Not only I, but others too think so
	şaplah shuhăshlaşşĕ

	pajan epĕ ni pahchana,			Today I neither went into the 
	ni urama tuhmarăm			garden nor onto the street.

    The use of particles imparts nuances of meaning to words and clauses. They may be divided into the following general types:
    -ah/-eh (strengthens the preceding word like Russian zhe or German doch, ja, or the way in English we stress with the voice, by saying “He did go there“) - this is very frequent, especially In folklore, where it is mostly written as part of the preceding word. şeş şeh “only, merely“
    akă “here,“ avă “there;“văt “voici,“ veş “voilà".
    -i, -shi “whether“ (often merely indicates a question is in existence, like Japanese
    ka); -i-mĕn or im “really, you don‘t say“
    lightly expressed command:
    -ha, -ka
    shăp “equally, exactly, namely, viz.“
    an, mar “no, not, not any“
    Most of these particles are enclitic (that is, pronounced and stressed with the preceding word), but -ah, and the other intensifying particles, together with the demonstrative and negative, may also bear accents of their own. The interrogative -i is used at the end of sentences, and only when no other interrogative word is present.
    Interjections, too, function chiefly in Chuvash as In English, to insert parenthetical exclamations not essential to the sentence, but conveying a definite feeling of the speaker regarding the circumstances. Some of them are:
    used in salutation and greeting
    expresses dissatisfaction and indignation
    ah, eh
    alas! expresses satisfaction, but also extreme discontent, perplexity, grief and indignation
    e-e, y-yh
    reproachful, tsk-tsk!, uh-uh!
    aj-haj, aj-jaj
    ah-hah! derisive or ironical attitude
    come on! let‘s go! get with it! plural is: atjăr. Also occurs metathetized: ajta, ajtăr
    Onomatopoetic Words
    Chuvash is quite rich in onomatopoetic or sound-imitative words, and these are found frequently in literature, folklore and native songs. For our present purposes, they are not too important.
	shănkăr-shănkăr shyv juhat		The water babbles, gurgle-gurgle.


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