Sign in | Sign Up | Signing in will enable you to post comments and send messages to the users.
 +19.3 °C
Истинный артист создает, даже копируя.(Г. Лебон)


UNIT SIX (CV Manual, Grammar)

     Possession expressed in different cases
     In the foregoing we have learned the different relationships in which a nominal may stand, as genitive, ablative, instrumental, and so on. We have also learned how to indicate possession on the part of persons or things of objects. It is therefore possible in Chuvash, as in English, not only to say “my son,“ or “to a house, one may say “to my son‘s house.“ This is accomplished in Chuvash by adding the relational morphemes after the possessive morphemes as previously learned.
     In this case too, the agglutinative forms with several morphemes seem to be giving way to analytic forms under Russian influence. The manner of formation as given in older and newer grammars differs in some details (e. g., in the 2nd p. sg., Ashmarin, 1898, gives ~ where 1960 grammars give u). Thus, the present writer has had to create a few forms by analogy since complete tables are not given. In spite of minor handicaps, the principle and manner of formation are clear, and from a practical point of view they are not hard to recognize.
     1st p. possessives expressed in different cases may be given as:
	yvălăm			hĕrĕm			acham			ĕnem
	yvălămăn		hĕrĕmĕn			achamăn			ĕnemĕn
	yvălăma			hĕrĕme			achama			ĕneme
	yvălămra		hĕrĕmre			achamra			ĕnemre
	yvălămran 		hĕrĕmren		achamran		ĕnemren
	yvălămpa		hĕrĕmpe			achampa			ĕnempe

    Note that these are all translated by phrases in English such as “from my son, to my cow, with my child.“
     The 2nd p. sg. forms may be given as follows. Note two particular changes (also applying to the 3rd p. sg.): in the dative-accusative, the -u characteristic of the 2nd p. sg. drops entirely, leaving only the ending -na/-ne. In the locative and ablative forms, a prothetic -n- occurs between the morpheme -u- and the regular ending -ta, -tan (but not with the instrumental -pa).
	yvălu			hĕrü			achu			ĕnü
	yvălun(ăn)		hĕrün(ĕn)		achun(ăn)		ĕnün(ĕn)
	yvălna			hĕrne			achuna			ĕnüne
	yvălunta		hĕrünte			achunta			ĕnünte
	yvăluntan		hĕrünten		achuntan		ĕnünten
	yvălupa			hĕrüpe			achupa			ĕnüpe

     In the 3rd p. sg., a form widely used when two nouns are juxtaposed (the so-called izafet construction), but also used to indicate possession by him, her or it, only front endings are used, since the suffix itself occurs only in the forms .-i and –ĕ. Note that. stems in -n double the n when the morpheme -ne is added (e. g., zakonne ‘to his law‘). The forms given below may also serve to indicate the 3rd person pi., although usually un or unăn ‘his‘ or vĕsen ‘their‘ is prefixed.
	yvălĕ			hĕrĕ			lashi			ĕni
	yvălĕn			hĕrĕn			lashin			ĕnin
	yvălne			hĕrne			lashine			ĕnine
	yvălĕnche		hĕrĕnche		lashinche		ĕninche
	yvălĕnchen		hĕrĕnchen		lashinchen		ĕninchen
	yvălĕpe			hĕrĕpe			lashipe			ĕnipe

     Thus far, we have considered only instances in which one person or object was possessed by one person or object. Now we shall consider instances in which more than one person possesses one object (or person), viz. “our, your (p1.).“ In the case of “your,“ it must be remembered that in some cases this is only a matter of form, since it can refer, in the polite usage, to only one person. The forms for the 1st p. pl. are as follows:
	yvălămăr		hĕrĕmĕr			lashamăr		ĕnemĕr
	yvălămărăn		hĕrĕmĕrĕn		lashamărăn		ĕnemĕrĕn
	yvălămăra		hĕrĕmĕrne		lashamăra		ĕnemĕrne
	yvălămărta		hĕrĕmĕrte		lashamărta		ĕnemĕrte
	yvălămărtan		hĕrĕmĕrten		lashamărtan		ĕnemĕrten
	yvălămărpa		hĕrĕmĕrpe		lashamărpa		ĕnemĕrpe

    The corresponding forms for the 2nd p. pl. are the following.
	yvălăr			hĕrĕr			lashăr			ĕnĕr
	yvălărăn		hĕrĕrĕn			lashărăn		ĕnĕrĕn
	yvălăra			hĕrĕrne			lashăra			ĕnĕrne
	yvălărta		hĕrĕrte			lashărta		ĕnĕrte
	yvălărtan		hĕrĕrten		lashărtan		ĕnĕrten
	yvălărpa		hĕrĕrpe			lashărpa		ĕnĕrpe

     As previously noted, forms such as jalămărta ‘in our village‘ have been supplanted by pirĕn jalta ‘in our village.‘ A few other instances, drawn from various texts, are:
	pirĕn atteme		to our father
	sirĕn yvălupa		with your son
	sirĕn lasha		your horse
	lashuna			your horse (acc.)
	pirĕn rajonta		in our region

     Some particular types of nominals, as previously pointed out, employ stern alternants under certain conditions. Thus sterns in morphophonemic -U employ their alternant in -ăv/-ĕv before possessive morphemes beginning with a vowel, and before the portmanteau morpheme /. na/. Stems in single consonant plus ă/ĕ employ the alternant with geminated consonant. The 1st p. is:
	şyrăvăm			pĕlĕvĕm			pullăm			küllĕm
	şyrăvămăn		pĕlĕvĕmĕn		pullămăn		küllĕmĕn
	şyrăvăma		pĕlĕvĕme		pullăma			küllĕme
	şyrăvămra		pĕlĕvĕmre		pullămra		küllĕmre
	şyrăvămran		pĕlĕvĕmren		pullărnran		küllĕmren
	şyrăvămpa		pĕlĕvĕmpe		pullămpa		küllĕmpe

    The 2nd p. forms are not quite as predictable. They are as follows:
	şyrăvu			pĕlĕvü			pullu			küllü
	şyrăvun			pĕlĕvĕn			pullun			küllün
	şyrăvna			pĕlĕvne			pulluna			küllüne
	şyrunta			pĕlünte			pullunta		küllünte
	şyruntan		pĕlünten		pulluntan		küllünten
	şyrăvupa		pĕlĕvüpe		pullupa			küllüpe

    In the 3rd p., the following forms are used: (Note front endings only!)
	şyrăvĕ			pĕlĕvĕ			pulli			külli
	şyrăvĕn			pĕlĕvĕn			pullin			küllin
	şyrăvne or şyrune	pĕlĕvne or pelüne	pulline			külline
	şyrăvĕnche		pĕlĕvĕnche		pullinche		küllinche
	şyrăvĕnchen		pĕlĕvĕnchen		pullinchen		küllinchen
	şyrăvĕpĕ		pĕlĕvĕpe		pullipe			küllipe

    Note several interesting features in this declension, namely, that gen. sg. /pĕlĕvĕn/ concides with that of the 2nd p., the same for the dat. -acc. /pĕlĕvne/. Note also the prothetic -n- in the locative and ablative -nche, -nchen.
     The possessive forms of nominals in /t/ and /d/ (and orthographic t‘ and d‘) are treated like other words, except for their morphophonemic change of t/d to ch before ĕ viz.
	sklad 		warehouse	skladăm		skladu		sklachĕ
	apat 		dinner		apatăm		apatu		apachĕ
	tetrad 		notebook	tetradĕm	tetradü		tetrachĕ
	element 	element		elementĕm	elementü	elemenchĕ
	turat		branch		turatăm		turatu		turachĕ
	jat		name		jatăm		jatu		jachĕ

     Up to now, we have considered the following instances of possession, viz.
    1. one person possessing one thing: my book, your book, her book
    2. more than one person possessing one thing: our book, their book
    There are still two more possibilities that may be expressed, viz.:
    3. one person possessing more than one of the items: my books, his books
    4. more than one person possessing more than one of the things involved: our books, your books, their books
    The formation of the latter two types is quite easy in Chuvash, and can be created by the student on the basis of the following examples for all forms, as it consists merely of adding the invariable plural morpheme forms after the appropriate possessive morphemes.
	yvălămsem		my sons		yvălămărsem 		our sons
	yvălămsen(ĕn)				yvălămărsen(ĕn)
	yvălămsene				yvălămărsene
	yvălămsenche				yvălămărsenche
	yvălămsenchen				yvălămărsenchen
	yvălămsempe		  		yvălămărsempe


Link Article :: Printable Version

Last edited by: Chavash, 2006-03-15 23:41:22. Views 7970. This page has not been reviewed by administrators. The editing will be checked and corrected.